**ABACUS:** Abacus is the first calculation machine used for counting, it is made of beads and rods. It’s mainly used for addition, substation, multiplication, and division.

**Napier’s bones:** Napier’s bones were invented by John Napier, a Scottish mathematician, who used a set of eleven rods, called the number of bones.

**Pascaline:** In 1642 the first mechanical calculator arithmetic machine or Pascaline was built to repeatedly add and construct substations. It was designed and built by Blaise Pascal, a great French mathematician, and philosopher.

**Leibnitz’s Calculator:** Gottfried Leibnitz, a German mathematician, improved Pascaline and built a new machine in 1672 that was capable of adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing.

**Jacquard’s loom: **jacquard’s loom developed in 1801 by joseph marry jacquard, a loom that enables unskilled workers to make patterns on fabrics.

**Difference Engine: **It was built by Charles Babbage, a British mathematician, and engineer, Babbage is called the father of computers. This machine was capable of automating all major calculations such as addition, subtraction, and multiplication.

**Analytical Engine:** In 1833, Charles Babbage developed an Analytical engine which was an evolved form of differential engine, which was very powerful and run on algorithms. Lady Augusta Ada put programming in the Analytical engine for the first time and they are also called the first programmers.

**Hollerith Machines:**

**Mark 1: ** The IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator called Mark-1 designed in 1937 by Howard university was the first operational general purpose electro-mechanical computer. Which could multiply two 10-digit numbers in 5 seconds and do a division in 12 seconds.